Open Science is the practice of science in such a way that others can collaborate and contribute, where research data, lab notes and other research processes are freely available, under terms that enable reuse, redistribution and reproduction of the research and its underlying data and methods. More interesting to me, though, is the speculation on the sexual origins of language and culture in chapter 2 and the devastating examination in chapter 3 of bigotry in the biological sciences in over two hundred years of observations of animal homosexuality.
Paul Feyerabend advanced the idea of epistemological anarchism , which holds that there are no useful and exception-free methodological rules governing the progress of science or the growth of knowledge and that the idea that science can or should operate according to universal and fixed rules are unrealistic, pernicious and detrimental to science itself.
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The belief that scientific theories should and do represent metaphysical reality is known as realism It can be contrasted with anti-realism , the view that the success of science does not depend on it being accurate about unobservable entities such as electrons One form of anti-realism is idealism , the belief that the mind or consciousness is the most basic essence, and that each mind generates its own reality.
They were mainly speculators or theorists , particularly interested in astronomy In contrast, trying to use knowledge of nature to imitate nature (artifice or technology , Greek technē) was seen by classical scientists as a more appropriate interest for lower class artisans.